Nude Girl Figurine from Egypt

Nude Girl Figurine from Egypt


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Toplessness

Toplessness refers to the state in which a woman's breasts, including her areola and nipples, are exposed, especially in a public place or in a visual medium. The male equivalent is barechestedness, also commonly called shirtlessness.

Exposed breasts were and are normal in many indigenous societies. However, western countries have social norms around female modesty, often enforced by legal statutes, that require women to cover their breasts in public. In many jurisdictions, women who expose their breasts can be prosecuted for indecent exposure, although public breastfeeding is often exempted from public indecency laws.

Social norms around toplessness vary by context and location. Throughout history, women's breasts have been featured in art and visual media, from painting and sculpture to film and photography, and such representations are generally defended on the grounds of artistic merit. Toplessness may also be deemed acceptable on educational, medical, or political grounds. At many beaches and resort destinations, especially in Europe and Australia, women are either formally or informally permitted to sunbathe topless. However, societies tend to view breast exposure unfavorably, and subject it to stringent regulations or prohibitions, if its intent is perceived to be sexual arousal.


Contents

There are depictions of male and female masturbation in prehistoric rock paintings around the world. Most early people seem to have connected human sexuality with abundance in nature. A clay figurine of the 4th millennium BC from a temple site on the island of Malta, depicts a woman masturbating. [1] However, in the ancient world depictions of male masturbation are far more common.

From the earliest records, the ancient Sumerians had very relaxed attitudes toward sex. [2] The Sumerians widely believed that masturbation enhanced sexual potency, both for men and for women, [2] and they frequently engaged in it, both alone and with their partners. [2] Men would often use puru-oil, a special oil probably mixed with pulverized iron ore intended to enhance friction. [2] Masturbation was also an act of creation and, in Sumerian mythology, the god Enki was believed to have created the Tigris and Euphrates rivers by masturbating and ejaculating into their empty riverbeds. [3]

Male masturbation was an even more important image in ancient Egypt: when performed by a god it could be considered a creative or magical act: the god Atum was believed to have created the universe by masturbating to ejaculation.

The ancient Greeks also regarded masturbation as a normal and healthy substitute for other forms of sexual pleasure. [6] [ better source needed ] Most information about masturbation in ancient Greece comes from surviving works of ancient Greek comedy and pottery. [4] Masturbation is frequently referenced in the surviving comedies of Aristophanes, which are the most important sources of information on ancient Greek views on the subject. [4] In ancient Greek pottery, satyrs are often depicted masturbating. [4] [5]

According to the Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers by the third-century AD biographer Diogenes Laërtius, Diogenes of Sinope, the fourth-century BC Cynic philosopher, often masturbated in public, which was considered scandalous. [7] [8] [9] When people confronted him over this, he would say, "If only it were as easy to banish hunger by rubbing my belly." [7] [8] [9] Diogenes, speaking in jest, credited the god Hermes with its invention: he allegedly took pity on his son Pan, who was pining for Echo but unable to seduce her, and taught him the trick of masturbation in order to relieve his suffering. Pan in his turn taught the habit to young shepherds. [10]

Masturbation is little noted in the sources for ancient Roman sexuality. [11] The poet Martial considers it an inferior form of sexual release resorted to by slaves. [12] Aulus Gellius, a Latin writer of the second century A.D., claims that the fragment of Empedocles "O wretches, utter wretches, from beans withhold your hands" refers to the testicles symbolically, trying to keep men away "from excess in venery". [13] Though infrequently mentioned, masturbation was a longstanding theme in Latin satire, appearing in one of the few surviving fragments of Lucilius, Rome's earliest practitioner of the genre. [14] The Romans preferred the left hand for masturbation. [15]

Within the African Congo Basin, the Aka and Ngandu ethnic groups all lack a word for masturbation in their languages and are confused by the concept of masturbation. [16]

Insanity Edit

Several medical papers were written on insanity as a result of masturbation, and this was written as a reason for admission when a person was confined in a hospital. A doctor named J W Robertson tried to describe the differences between different types of masturbation in the year 1898, when addressing the Medical Society of the State of California. [17] [18] [19] [20]

18th century pamphlet Edit

The first use of the word "onanism" to consistently and specifically refer to masturbation is a pamphlet first distributed in London in 1716, titled "Onania, or the Heinous Sin of self-Pollution, And All Its Frightful Consequences, In Both Sexes, Considered: With Spiritual and Physical Advice To Those Who Have Already Injured Themselves By This Abominable Practice." It drew on familiar themes of sin and vice, this time in particular against the "heinous sin" of "self-pollution", with dire warnings that those who so indulged would suffer:

Disturbances of the stomach and digestion, loss of appetite or ravenous hunger, vomiting, nausea, weakening of the organs of breathing, coughing, hoarseness, paralysis, weakening of the organ of generation to the point of impotence, lack of libido, back pain, disorders of the eye and ear, total diminution of bodily powers, paleness, thinness, pimples on the face, decline of intellectual powers, loss of memory, attacks of rage, madness, idiocy, epilepsy, fever and finally suicide.

Included were letters and testimonials supposedly from young men ill and dying from the effects of compulsive masturbation. The pamphlet then goes on to recommend as an effective remedy a "Strengthening Tincture" at 10 shillings a bottle and a "Prolific Powder" at 12 shillings a bag, available from a local shop. "Onania" was a huge success with over 60 editions published and being translated into several languages.

James Edit

In 1743–45, the British physician Robert James published A Medicinal Dictionary, in which he described masturbation as being "productive of the most deplorable and generally incurable disorders" and stated that "there is perhaps no sin productive of so many hideous consequences". [21]

Tissot Edit

One of the many horrified by the descriptions of malady in Onania was the notable Swiss physician Samuel-Auguste Tissot. In 1760, he published L'Onanisme, his own comprehensive medical treatise on the purported ill-effects of masturbation. [22] Citing case studies of young male masturbators amongst his patients in Lausanne, Switzerland as basis for his reasoning, Tissot argued that semen was an "essential oil" and "stimulus", the loss of which in great amounts would cause "a perceptible reduction of strength, of memory and even of reason blurred vision, all the nervous disorders, all types of gout and rheumatism, weakening of the organs of generation, blood in the urine, disturbance of the appetite, headaches and a great number of other disorders."

In a 17th-century law code for the Puritan colony of New Haven, Connecticut, blasphemers, homosexuals and masturbators were eligible for the death penalty. [23]

Though Tissot's ideas are now considered conjectural at best, his treatise was presented as a scholarly, scientific work in a time when experimental physiology was practically nonexistent. The authority with which the work was subsequently treated – Tissot's arguments were even acknowledged and echoed by Kant and Voltaire – arguably turned the perception of masturbation in Western medicine over the next two centuries into that of a debilitating illness.

Rush Edit

In 1812 Benjamin Rush included "Of the Morbid State of the Sexual Appetite" as chapter 18 of his book on diseases of the mind. [24] In it he cites excessive eating, intemperance in drinking, and idleness as causative factors of onanism. Earlier in the book (page 33) he claims there is a "train of physical and moral evils which this solitary vice fixes upon the body and mind." In his charge of mentally ill people he notes three driven to mania by onanism (page 48). In his observation of "congenital idiotism" (page 292) he notes, "The venereal appetite exists in them with great force, and they gratify it after puberty by onanism."

By 1838 Jean Esquirol declared in his Des Maladies Mentales that masturbation was "recognized in all countries as a cause of insanity." [25] [26]

White Edit

In the 1870 book A Solemn Appeal Relative to Solitary Vice, and the Abuses and Excesses of the Marriage Relation, edited by James Springer White, husband of Ellen G. White, we find:

If the practice [of self-indulgence] is continued from the age of fifteen and upward, nature will protest against the abuse he has suffered, and continues to suffer, and will make them pay the penalty for the transgression of his laws, especially from the ages of thirty to forty-five, by numerous pains in the system, and various diseases, such as affection of the liver and lungs, neuralgia, rheumatism, affection of the spine, diseased kidneys, and cancerous humors. Some of nature's fine machinery gives way, leaving a heavier task for the remaining to perform, which disorders nature's fine arrangement, and there is often a sudden breaking down of the constitution and death is the result. [27]

Females possess less vital force than the other sex, and are deprived very much of the bracing, invigorating air, by their in-door life. The result of self-abuse in them is seen in various diseases, such as catarrh, dropsy, headache, loss of memory and sight, great weakness in the back and loins, affections of the spine, and frequently, inward decay of the head. Cancerous humor, which would lie dormant in the system their lifetime, is inflamed, and commences its eating, destructive work. The mind is often utterly ruined, and insanity supervenes. [27]

Kellogg Edit

Doctor John Harvey Kellogg (February 26, 1852 – December 14, 1943) was an especially zealous campaigner against masturbation. Kellogg was able to draw upon many medical sources' claims such as "neither the plague, nor war, nor small-pox, nor similar diseases, have produced results so disastrous to humanity as the pernicious habit of onanism," credited to one Dr. Adam Clarke. Kellogg strongly warned against the habit in his own words, claiming of masturbation-related deaths "such a victim literally dies by his own hand," among other condemnations. Kellogg believed the practice of "solitary-vice" caused cancer of the womb, urinary diseases, nocturnal emissions, impotence, epilepsy, insanity, and mental and physical debility – "dimness of vision" was only briefly mentioned. In Plain Facts for Old and Young, Kellogg issued a warning on the evils of sex. Of the 644 pages, 97 address "Secret Vice (Solitary Vice or Self-Abuse)", its symptoms and results. Included are 39 signs indicating someone is masturbating. He recommended, to cure children from this "solitary vice", bandaging or tying their hands, covering their genitals with patented cages, sewing the foreskin shut and electrical shock, and circumcision without anesthesia, which would break the habit. In order to prevent it, he advised parents first to teach children to avoid handling their genitalia, and as they get more mature, to inform them "of the evil consequences". He also warned parents against "evil associations", servants, and "wicked or ignorant" nurses who would masturbate children in order to quiet them. [28]

Freud Edit

Sigmund Freud wrote of the "disease of masturbation": "He was suffering from the effects of masturbation." [29]

Bin Baz Edit

In the 1990s, Abd al-Aziz bin Baz, the Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia, argued masturbation causes disruption of the digestive system, inflammation of the testicles, damage to the spine, "trembling and instability in some parts of the body like the feet", weakening of the "cerebral glands" leading to decreased intellect and even "mental disorders and insanity". [30]

Immanuel Kant regarded masturbation as a violation of the moral law. In the Metaphysics of Morals (1797) he made the a posteriori argument that 'such an unnatural use of one's sexual attributes' strikes 'everyone upon his thinking of it' as 'a violation of one's duty to himself', and suggested that it was regarded as immoral even to give it its proper name (unlike the case of the similarly undutiful act of suicide). He went on, however, to acknowledge that 'it is not so easy to produce a rational demonstration of the inadmissibility of that unnatural use', but ultimately concluded that its immorality lay in the fact that 'a man gives up his personality … when he uses himself merely as a means for the gratification of an animal drive'.

The 18th-century philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau saw masturbation as equal to 'mental rape', and discussed it in both Émile and Confessions. He argued that it was the corrupting influence of society that led to such unnatural acts as masturbation and that humans living a simple life amidst nature would never do such things. [ citation needed ]

This continued well into the Victorian Era, where such medical censure of masturbation was in line with the widespread social conservatism and opposition to open sexual behavior common at the time. [31] [32] In 1879, Mark Twain wrote a speech titled Some Thoughts on the Science of Onanism which he ended with the words:

So, in concluding, I say: If you must gamble away your life sexually, don’t play a Lone Hand too much.

When you feel a revolutionary uprising in your system, get your Vendome Column down some other way — don’t jerk it down.

There were recommendations to have boys' trousers constructed so that the genitals could not be touched through the pockets, for schoolchildren to be seated at special desks to prevent their crossing their legs in class and for girls to be forbidden from riding horses and bicycles because the sensations these activities produce were considered too similar to masturbation. Boys and young men who nevertheless continued to indulge in the practice were branded as "weak-minded." [33] Many "remedies" were devised, including eating a bland, meatless diet. This approach was promoted by Dr. John Harvey Kellogg (inventor of corn flakes) and Rev. Sylvester Graham (inventor of Graham crackers). [34] The medical literature of the times describes procedures for electric shock treatment, infibulation, restraining devices like chastity belts and straitjackets, cauterization or – as a last resort – wholesale surgical excision of the genitals. Routine neonatal circumcision was widely adopted in the United States and the UK at least partly because of its believed preventive effect against masturbation (see also History of male circumcision). In later decades, the more drastic of these measures were increasingly replaced with psychological techniques, such as warnings that masturbation led to blindness, hairy hands or stunted growth. Some of these persist as myths even today. Referring to such viewpoints and treatments, Messer and Walker stated: "These are some of the darkest pages of religious and medical history." [35]

In 1905, Sigmund Freud addressed masturbation in his Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality and associated it with addictive substances. He described the masturbation of infants at the period when the infant is nursing, at four years of age, and at puberty.

In 1910, the meetings of the Vienna psychoanalytic circle discussed the moral or health effects of masturbation [36] but its publication was suppressed.

Medical attitudes toward masturbation began to change at the beginning of the 20th century when H. Havelock Ellis, in his seminal 1897 work Studies in the Psychology of Sex, questioned Tissot's premises, cheerfully named famous men of the era who masturbated and then set out to disprove (with the work of more recent physicians) each of the claimed diseases of which masturbation was purportedly the cause. "We reach the conclusion", he wrote, "that in the case of moderate masturbation in healthy, well-born individuals, no seriously pernicious results necessarily follow." [37]

Robert Baden-Powell, the founder of The Scout Association, incorporated a passage in the 1914 edition of Scouting for Boys warning against the dangers of masturbation. This passage stated that the individual should run away from the temptation by performing physical activity which was supposed to tire the individual so that masturbation could not be performed. By 1930, however, Dr. F. W. W. Griffin, editor of The Scouter, had written in a book for Rover Scouts that the temptation to masturbate was "a quite natural stage of development" and, citing Ellis' work, held that "the effort to achieve complete abstinence was a very serious error."

"Concerning Specific Forms of Masturbation" is a 1922 essay by Austrian psychiatrist and psychoanalyst Wilhelm Reich. In the seven and a half page essay Reich accepts the prevalent notions on the roles of unconscious fantasy and the subsequent emerging guilt feelings which he saw as originating from the act itself.

The works of sexologist Alfred Kinsey during the 1940s and 1950s, most notably the Kinsey Reports, insisted that masturbation was an instinctive behaviour for both males and females, citing the results of Gallup Poll surveys indicating how common it was in the United States. Some critics of this theory held that his research was biased and that the Gallup Poll method was redundant for defining "natural behavior".

In the US masturbation has not been a diagnosable condition since DSM II (1968). [38] The American Medical Association consensually declared masturbation as normal in 1972. [39]

Thomas Szasz states the shift in scientific consensus [40] [41] [42] as "Masturbation: the primary sexual activity of mankind. In the nineteenth century it was a disease in the twentieth, it's a cure." [43]

In the 1980s Michel Foucault was arguing masturbation taboo was "rape by the parents of the sexual activity of their children":

To intervene in this personal, secret activity, which masturbation was, does not represent something neutral for the parents. It is not only a matter of power, or authority, or ethics it's also a pleasure. [44]

In 1994, when the Surgeon General of the United States, Dr. Joycelyn Elders, mentioned as an aside that it should be mentioned in school curricula that masturbation was safe and healthy, she was forced to resign, [45] with opponents asserting that she was promoting the teaching of how to masturbate.


10 shocking sexual traditions of tribes and peoples of the world (10 photos)

All people of the world will learn with age what sex is, but not all people have the same ideas about it. Some tribes or even entire nations, had come up with themselves unimaginable rituals and for such a long time of existence continue to honor their sexual tradition. For us, this wildness, and for them it is the absolute norm.

Sambia – tribe drinking sperm

This tribe is quite strange ritual to turn a boy into a man. At the age of 7 years old boy is taken from the tribe in the village men that he did not enter into any contact with women in general, and allow the tribe 10 years later. Throughout the 10 years of the future man constantly pierce the skin, let the bleeding from the nose and cause vomiting, causing her feeding teen huge amount of sugarcane. Thus the young man cleared before contact with a woman at the age of 17 years.

Also a man of the future, this tribe, forced to drink sperm elders, explaining that the sperm will help the boy grow up faster and become stronger. Even after returning to the tribe during menstruation his woman a man should let nosebleeds.

Mardudzhara – unusual tribes practice circumcision and meatotomy

Ritual vzrolseniya this tribe consists of several procedures. In the first part of the ritual is performed teenager barbaric circumcision, after which the boy has to eat his own cut off the foreskin. In the second part of the ritual is performed meatotomy teenager – cutting the bottom of the penis on the channel until his scrotum, to cleanse flowing blood should drip into the fire. From this point on the male will urinate through the remaining portion of the urethra, which is quite far from the head of the penis. Of course it is not clear, why in this ritual of such courageous.

Trobrianders – tribe, which begin to have sex with 6 years

Residents of the island of Papua New Guinea show the sexual revolution by example. Girls start of this tribe have sex with 6-8 years and boys from 10-12 and it is considered absolutely normal. But this does not mean that they are promiscuous, to prevent this in the tribe have a couple of specially devised customs. Yet there would not grow up so early because of the fair sex of this tribe walk around topless.

The most sacred in this Trobrianders eating together. Man strictly forbidden to share a meal with a woman before marriage, or whatever they called it.

With waterfalls d’Eau – a favorite place for debauchery voodoo followers

If you will relax in Haiti and God forbid get to the waterfalls From d’Eau (Saut d’Eau), then you can see a very unusual ritual local voodoo followers. Every year they make a pilgrimage to these waterfalls to perform a ritual worship of the local goddess of love.
Everything seems nice and decent? Certainly not! Imagine a bunch of naked people writhing in the mud and blood of the sacrificed animals also add to this picture has severed heads of the same animals. I think this show is unlikely to enjoy a healthy person

Nepalis – people, where the brothers divided between wife

According to an article in Psychology Today: “Almost all of the few polyandrous societies practice what anthropologists call fraternal polyandry, where a group of brothers divided between his wife. This is common in the Himalayas, where very little fertile family, and the appearance of another son, would be the division of land to another son could establish themselves with their own family. To save space and they begin to create a family hostel with shared wife.

Vodabi – tribe where men steal each other’s wives, Niger

In Vodabi tribe, Niger, West Africa, adopted steal each other’s wives on holiday Gerevol. Svadba arranged tribe children still in the childhood, where the husband and wife had each other cousins. But not all so sad with the manifold. The annual feast of Gerevol men given tribe decided to decorate, dress up and steal each other’s wives. If the pair managed to srulit this holiday unnoticed, their new marriage is fully legal, and the husband-wally with nothing, of course, if not steal another wife. These marriages are they considered in love.

Ancient Egyptian pharaohs practitioners public masturbation

Do pharaohs of ancient Egypt was an unusual ritual when Pharaoh masturbated and ejaculated into the Nile. The fact that the River Nile happens all the time ebbs and flows, and it was believed that this ritual will provide an abundance of water. On this occasion in Egypt was even an official holiday of the god Min, dedicated to the potency of the pharaoh, which all present men had publicly masturbate

Ancient Greece, where homosexuality was considered absolutely normal

Ancient Greece, where homosexuality was considered absolutely normal yavleniemDrevnie Greeks perceived sexual orientation as a social indicator. In fact they did not care what sex was sexual partners, the most important aspect of sex was someone who. Activity in this matter meant a higher status and masculinity and passivity was associated with lower social status, femininity and youth.

Ancient Greece: pederasty – is the norm!

In ancient Greece there was such a thing as “paiderastia”, which literally means love of boys. This was the “love” of older men to young boys. Teen boy was considered as poryu until he started to grow a beard. While senior man called “erastes” and he was supposed to love, protect and maintain, educate, and serve as an example for the young “eromenos”. Feel love for the boy younger than 12 years was improper, but no laws prohibiting it did not exist.

Contemporary culture of Iran, where you can buy a temporary marriage, if you have money

Muslim culture is one of the most stringent in relation to sexual acts and sexual relations between a man and a woman. For example, Muslim couples can only have sex in the missionary position. Please husband about changing positions considered humiliation of.

However, in some Muslim countries, such as Iran, a young couple who wanted to have sex before they are ready to marry, can buy a “temporary marriage.” They have the right to pay for the short ceremony, as a result of which is a contract which will show the exact time of the marriage. After this, they can have sex like rabbits without contradicting Islamic law.


Top-20 Beautiful Egyptian Women. Photo Gallery

Beautiful Egyptian women. what does your mind picture when you hear these words? If your fantasy draws you an image of Cleopatra and Nefertiti, you should know: these images now are more history and have almost nothing common with appearance, style of life and character on women living today in this arabic country located on the north of Africa. We can state that nowadays there are two main types of Egyptian women - those who follow all arabic Muslim traditions and modern feminized ladies which feel they are equal with their men.

If you see this African woman ( it happens really very rare), you won't understand if she is a beauty and if she has very attractive shapes. Traditional women's clothes hide her face and her body, so that no one but her husband or parents can see her. The destiny of an Egyptian women, as befits a true Muslim, is her house, children, husband. Her you will not find women on the market, or among the service staff at the hotel. They are not allowed to do many things: it happens through Koran traditions. However, no one even thinks that Egyptian women are unhappy: traditions are deep in local mentality of these people. And local husbands respectfully call their beloved wives "Madame". Their character and passion can be seen, perhaps, better in a famous charming and magical belly dance. Most of women who follow Muslim traditions, live in rural places and villages. The "average" woman in this country gives birth to 5 children, and families living in villages have 7, 8 and even more kids! Naturally, mothers simply do not have any time to work. Their job is to take care about their children, cook, make laundry. All women living in small towns and villages and many of them which live in large cities and even in Cairo, are housewives. Although the country provides free medical aid and free education, the life of a woman with such a "team" of kids turns into an eternal care about them. No time to care about herself is left, and probably, some ladies in egypt bless Muslim traditions: it is very convenient to hide modest clothes and a face with no make-up under traditional arabic dress.

Egypt is the country which meets millions of tourists. Certainly, tourists, coming here, bring to the land their way of life, "drag" with themselves the atmosphere of freedom from Europe and America. They seriously affect minds of Egyptian women . So that many of young ladies are sure: they will never ever agree to wear long traditional dress and paranja. They know that high education will open them the way to the other world, free of religious prejudices and strict taboo. These young ladies wear casual or fashion clothes, denim or leather. However, even here a tourist coming to this blessed country will see: there is something which differs an Egyptian girl from a girl from Europe or even Asia. It is not the color of skin: although Egyptian people refer to Caucasian, it is darker a bit. Girls in Egypt adore to wear jewellery. Even if she has jeans or an a leather jacket, be sure, when you come closer, you will see she wears several golden or silver rings, beautiful earrings, bracelets and necklace. Traditions live deep in blood, and girls wear the same charming oriental perfum like countrywomen. So that we can state: Cleopatra and the current Egyptian ladies are the daughters of two different cultures already.

Egyptian girls in large cities are actively using cosmetics, lax clothin,trying to be trendy and unfettered.
Also, there is a tendency among modern Egyptians women, who are not hurrying to get married and have children, and strive to get an education and profession.

The Top 20 most beautiful Egyptian women includes well-known actress, singer, model, winner of beauty contests, dancer and TV presenter with Egyptian roots, living in Egypt or beyond.


Nude Girl, Moveable Arm, 3rd Intermediate Period

This statuette of a woman is an ancient mechanical figure. Both of her arms were attached to an axle that runs between her shoulders a string was wound around the axle, then ran through a channel in her body and left leg to emerge beneath the base under her feet, so that pulling the string caused the axle to turn and the arms to rise.
The figurine had been considered problematic, but a recent study has adduced strong technical evidence to support its antiquity, thus restoring it to a place in our displayed collection.

The study also endeavored to place the statuette in terms of style, suggested a reconstruction for the pose of its missing left arm, and posited an identity that the author saw as a clue to understanding a larger group of first millennium figures. Particularly the reconstruction of the figure’s pose and the idea of a single shared identity among the larger group must retain question marks.
Object Details
Title: Statuette of a nude woman with moveable arms, one missing


The History of Nudity

From the Garden of Eden to Dirk Diggler and Kim Kardashian&mdashplus everything long, short, plump, and pubic in between.

Eve is tempted to take a bite of fruit from the tree of knowledge, offers to Adam. The naked couple recognize their own nudity and make clothes of fig leaves and loincloth, Gen. 3:7.[18]. After that, "naked" is referenced in the King James version of the bible 104 times. Oh, and humanity falls from grace.

Lady Godiva rides a horse naked through the streets of Coventry to protest her husband's tax policies.

Francisco Goya paints La maja desnuda, a fully nude woman with pubic hair. Spanish society is enraged.

Photographer Alfred Cheney Johnston specializes in unretouched, full frontal images of showgirls from the Ziegfield Follies.

Actress Hedy Lamarr fakes an organsm in Ecstasy, appears fully nude on screen, and (spoiler alert) has pubic hair and nipples.

Marilyn Monroe appears naked in the centerfold of the first issue of Playboy. Men rush to the newsstands for the articles.

John Lennon and Yoko Ono release Unfinished Music #1: Two Virgins and appear au naturel on the album cover.

As English actor David Niven introduces Elizabeth Taylor at the 46 th Academy Awards, photographer and art gallerist Robert Opel streaks across the stage, flashing the audience a peace sign, among other things.


Accounts of Gladiatrix in Historical Resources

Female gladiators probably appeared for the first time during the reign of Emperor Nero . The Roman historian, Cassius Dio, described the festival of gladiator fights, which was held as a tribute to Nero's mother:

“In honor of his mother he [Nero] celebrated a most magnificent and costly festival, the events taking place for several days in five or six theatres at once…There was another exhibition that was at once most disgraceful and most shocking, when men and women not only of the equestrian but even of the senatorial order appeared as performers in the orchestra, in the Circus, and in the hunting-theatre, like those who are held in lowest esteem… they drove horses, killed wild beasts and fought as gladiators, some willingly and some sore against their will.”

Apart from Nero (ruled 54-68 AD), other emperors of Rome also liked to invite Gladiatrix to their houses, parties, and other celebrations in big arenas. There are also accounts of them which come from the period of the Emperor Domitian’s reign from 81-96 AD. As Cassius Dio wrote about Domitian: "Often he would conduct the games also at night, and sometimes he would pit dwarfs and women against each other."

Septimius Severus also accepted female gladiators until around 200 AD, when he banned the female fights to reduce arguments in the arenas. The main goal was to stop making the gladiator fights into shows which, according to the emperor, promoted lower class behavior amongst noble women. This point of view was also present in the Emperor Honorius, who finally decreed the end of gladiators altogether in 399 AD. The last known competition between gladiators took place in Rome on January 1, 202 AD.


Mohenjo-Daro

Mohenjo-Daro, meaning ‘Mound of the Dead Men’, is an archaeological site in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. Built around 2500 BCE, it was one of the largest settlements of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization.

It is also one of the world’s earliest major cities, contemporaneous with the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Minoan Crete.

Mohenjo-Daro was abandoned in the 19th century BCE as the Indus Valley Civilization declined, and the site was not rediscovered until the 1920s. Significant excavation has since been conducted at the site of the city.

At its height, the Indus Civilization spanned much of what is now Pakistan and North India. It extended westwards to the Iranian border, south to Gujarat in India and northwards to Bactria.

Its major urban centers were at Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro, Lothal, Kalibangan, Dholavira, and Rakhigarhi. Mohenjo-Daro was the most advanced city of its time, with remarkably sophisticated civil engineering and urban planning.


Egyptian Statues of Gods

The Egyptian Statues of the Gods and Pharaohs were made from a variety of stones like Granite, Basalt, Alabaster, Limestone, Gneiss, Gypsum, Graywacke and Gesso.

The Egyptians built large statues with a restricted number of tools and equipment. Initially, flint tools were used but they were later on replaced by tools made from copper. After copper, the tools were made from bronze and iron. Statues were also made from a softer variety of stones like limestone or sandstone. These stone were then painted in numerous colors.

A material like plaster was placed on the surface of the statue upon which the designs were made and later on colored. The ancient Egyptians believed that the spirit of deceased lives in the statues.

However, if there was any Pharaoh who was hated by the people, they might have destroyed the statues like breaking the nose. As per the people, this act would result in the spirit find it difficult to breathe and thus die of lack of breath.

Wood like Acacia and Sycamore was used to make small statues which normally were found in people’s houses. The statue of Bes was specially kept in the houses to ward off the evil. Even gold, ebony and other metals were used to make the statues.

Statues made from precious metals were only found in the houses of the rich. In case of wooden statues also, it was first covered with a plaster-like material then the design would be drawn on it and finally would be colored.


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Comments:

  1. Grolkree

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  2. Barrett

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